Links to other sites


RAeS Human Powered Flight Group here

British Human Powered Flying Club here 

Stichting Human Powered Flight Nederland (Dutch Human Powered Flight Foundation) here 


Kramer Prizes here

The Great Race here


Don Monroe's photographs of Gossamer Condor, Albatross, Bionic Bat, and Solar Challenger at his website here

DMG MORI Birdman House IGA here

Details of the DMG MORI Birdman House IGA aircraft and its construction are here - HIGHLY RECOMMENDED

Team-F  here

Japanese HPA blog (in English) here

Tohoku University Windnauts here

Fred To's aircraft here

Peer Frank's Velair here

DaSH PA -- Dead Simple Human Powered Airplane here

Southampton University HPA  here

J. S. Langford, "A Human Powered Speed Aircraft With Electrical Energy Storage," MIT S. M. Thesis, May 1984. here This is a really useful detailed case study for the design of an HPA. It includes all of the calculations for the design of an HPA and some of the code (In BASIC) that was used. It is recommended as essential reading.

B. Vanderhoydonck et al. (2016) Optimization of a Human-Powered Aircraft Using Fluid–Structure Interaction Simulations. Aerospace, 3(3) here


Aerovelo here


UIUC Low-speed airfoil tests Airfoil database here

XFOIL airfoil design software and XROTOR propeller design software here


Mark Drela's XROTOR interactive program for the design and analysis of ducted and free-tip propellers and windmills here


XFLR5 - an analysis tool for airfoils, wings and planes operating at low Reynolds Numbers here

AVL is a program for the aerodynamic and flight-dynamic analysis of rigid aircraft of arbitrary configuration written by Mark Drela and Harold Youngren  here

ASWING is a program for the aerodynamic, structural, and control-response analysis of aircraft with flexible wings and fuselages of high to moderate aspect ratio, written by Mark Drela here (The sample input files contain data for the Daedalus HPA)

The sample input files contain data for the Daedalus HPA

Why birds don't have vertical tails, Albion Bowers, NASA. here The video is also about asking good questions. (Also, see Prandtl's 1933 paper on the downloads page.)

Laminate analysis

Laminate analysis software (free) here

VectorLam (free) here

If you want to understand the theory then see:

Alfred Puck's work on laminate analysis summarised by Greenwood, J.H., 1977. German work on GRP design. Composites, 8(3), pp.175-184.

And Prof. Dr.-Ing. Alfred Puck - Analysis of Failure in Fibre Polymer Laminates here (in English)

(Alfred Puck designed the Darmstadt D-34d sailplane) See Puck, Einige Beispiele zu Konstruktion und Bau von hochbeanspruchten Segelflugzeugteilen aus Glasfaserkunststoff, Schweizer Aero-Revue, Zurich, 37 (1962) pp. 713-717, 38 (1963) pp. 35-42 (Some examples of design and construction of high load sailplane components of GFRP)


Icarus' Children: The Story of Man-Powered Flight here PBS 1978 - it includes the development of the Gossamer Condor.